WAEC 2023 Geography Essay, Objective, Practical and Physical Geography Answers

WAEC 2023 Geography Essay, Objective, Practical and Physical Geography Answers

Friday, 2nd June, 2023

  • Geography 2 (Essay) – 09:30am – 11:30am.
  • Geography 1 (Objective) – 11:30am – 12:30pm.
  • Geography 3 (Practical and Physical Geography) 3:00pm – 4:50pm.




(i) Shortage Of Raw Materials: Lack of sufficient raw materials available to industries hinders large scale production.

(ii) Political Instability: Frequent changes in governments and incessant civil wars in african countries discourage foreign investors.

(iii) Inadequate skilled man-power: Skilled man-power required for high industrial growth is grossly inadequate in developing countries.

(iv) Poor Management: Corruption, embezzlement and negligence of duty are very common in developed countries and these are indicators of poor management.

(v) Competition from foreign goods: Because of the high quality of foreign goods other industries usually not be patronised.


(i) Acquisition of Skills: Skills should be acquired by people through regular training.

(ii) Good government policies: There should be good government policies to protect the industries.

(iii) Establishment of more power plants: Power plants such as thermal electricity plants should be established to boost power supply to industries.

(iv) Increase in wages/salaries of workers: There should be increase in wages/salaries of workers in industries to boost their morales and increase productivity.

(v) Creation of Industrial Zones: These will also provide conducive environment with all the infrastructure facilities for industrialization.


Internal trade refers to the buying and selling of goods and services within the geographical boundaries of a country. It involves the exchange of goods and services between different regions, states or cities within the country.



(i) Efficient Movement of Goods: Rail transportation allows for the efficient movement of goods across long distances. It can accommodate large quantities of cargo, making it an ideal mode of transport for industries such as agriculture, mining, and manufacturing in tropical Africa. This efficiency helps stimulate trade and economic growth.

(ii) Reduced Congestion: Compared to road transportation, rail systems help alleviate congestion on major highways. By diverting a significant portion of freight traffic to rail, the congestion on roads is reduced, resulting in smoother traffic flow, decreased travel times, and improved road safety.

(iii) Lower Environmental Impact: Rail transportation is more environmentally friendly compared to road transport. Trains emit less carbon dioxide per ton of freight compared to trucks, reducing greenhouse gas emissions and air pollution. This advantage is crucial for tropical Africa’s sustainability efforts and can contribute to mitigating climate change impacts.

(iv) Enhanced Connectivity: Rail networks provide enhanced connectivity by linking remote areas and cities, facilitating economic integration and regional development. They enable access to markets, resources, and employment opportunities, boosting trade, tourism, and economic activities across tropical Africa.

(v) Increased Accessibility: Rail systems provide reliable and accessible transportation for both passengers and goods. They offer a cost-effective means of travel, making it easier for people to commute between cities and towns, visit tourist destinations, and access essential services such as healthcare and education. This accessibility helps bridge the gap between rural and urban areas.

(vi) Job Creation: Developing rail infrastructure in tropical Africa generates employment opportunities in various sectors. From construction and maintenance to operation and management, rail projects create jobs for engineers, technicians, drivers, station staff, and support personnel. This job creation contributes to economic development and poverty reduction.

(vii) Long-term Cost Savings: While initial investments in rail infrastructure may be significant, in the long run, rail transport can be cost-effective. Railways have lower operating costs compared to road transport due to lower fuel consumption, reduced vehicle maintenance, and decreased road damage. These cost savings can be beneficial for both businesses and governments.



(i) Insufficient Infrastructure: Many countries in tropical Africa have outdated and inadequate rail infrastructure. The existing rail networks often suffer from poor maintenance, outdated technology, and insufficient capacity. This results in slower speeds, frequent breakdowns, and limited connectivity, hindering the smooth movement of goods and passengers.



(ii) Funding Constraints: Lack of adequate funding is a major challenge for rail projects in tropical Africa. Limited financial resources lead to delays in infrastructure upgrades, repairs, and expansion, hampering the overall efficiency of rail transportation.

(iii) Inadequate Maintenance: Due to financial constraints and lack of technical expertise, rail infrastructure in tropical Africa often suffers from inadequate maintenance. This results in deteriorating tracks, bridges, and signaling systems, leading to frequent disruptions, delays, and safety concerns.

(iv) Lack of Interconnectivity: Many rail networks in tropical Africa suffer from a lack of interconnectivity, limiting their reach and effectiveness. Incomplete or fragmented rail systems make it challenging to transport goods seamlessly across different regions, hindering economic integration and trade.

(v) Inefficient Operations: Inefficient operations and management practices contribute to the problems facing rail transportation in tropical Africa. Factors such as outdated technology, inadequate training of staff, and suboptimal scheduling and coordination lead to delays, inefficiencies, and reduced service quality.

(vi) Insecurity: Rail transportation in tropical Africa often faces security challenges such as vandalism, theft, and sabotage. These incidents not only disrupt operations but also pose risks to the safety of passengers and cargo.



(i) Insufficient Infrastructure: Increased investment in rail infrastructure by seeking partnerships with international organizations, private sector entities, and foreign investors can provide the necessary funding for infrastructure upgrades, expansion, and modernization, thereby improving the capacity and quality of rail networks.

(ii) Funding Constraints: Governments can offer incentives and create a conducive business environment to encourage private sector participation.

(iii) Inadequate Maintenance: Government should establish a dedicated maintenance fund for rail infrastructure, ensuring a regular and sufficient budget allocation for maintenance activities and also train and employ skilled maintenance personnel.

(iv) Lack of Interconnectivity: Improved coordination and planning are required to enhance interconnectivity between different rail lines and modes of transport.

(v) Inefficient Operations: Implementing modern management practices, training programs, and technological upgrades can address these issues.

(vi) Insecurity: Strengthening security measures, implementing surveillance systems, and increasing law enforcement presence can help mitigate these risks.


(i) Poor infrastructure: Nigeria’s poor road network, insufficient transport systems, and inadequate storage facilities make it difficult to move goods from one location to another, resulting in delays, high transportation costs, and damage to goods.

(ii) Regulatory challenges: The lack of a transparent and consistent regulatory framework for internal trade in Nigeria has led to a proliferation of informal markets and smuggling. This results in unfair competition for formal businesses, loss of government revenue, and reduced consumer protection.

(iii) Multiple taxation: The multiplicity of taxes imposed on traders, including local government levies, state taxes, and federal duties, makes trading in Nigeria very expensive, reducing profitability for traders.

(iv) Inadequate access to credit: Many traders in Nigeria do not have access to affordable credit, making it difficult for them to expand their businesses, meet their financial obligations, and access new markets.

(v) Corruption: Bribery and extortion of traders by government officials, security forces, and market leaders have been a persistent problem in Nigeria, discouraging many from engaging in formal internal trade.

(vi) Insecurity: Insurgency, banditry, and other forms of violence in different parts of Nigeria have adversely affected internal trade, discouraging traders from entering certain regions, causing loss of life and property, and disrupting supply chains.


(i) Economic growth: Internal trade drives economic growth by promoting the exchange of goods and services between regions, stimulating competition, encouraging innovation, and creating jobs.

(ii) Poverty reduction: Internal trade provides income and employment opportunities for many Nigerians, particularly those in the informal sector, helping to reduce poverty in the country.

(iii) Regional integration: Internal trade promotes regional integration by encouraging the exchange of goods and services between different regions, enhancing economic cooperation and social cohesion.

(iv) Enhanced food security: Internal trade promotes access to food in different regions, ensuring that people have enough food to eat, no matter where they live. This is particularly important in times of food shortages or when certain foods are unavailable in a particular region.





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