You must read the WAEC syllabus for Dying and Bleaching in order to take the test. The goals and objectives, notes, and structure for the Dying and Bleaching exam are all included.
The Dying and Bleaching syllabus must be studied in order to be prepared for the exam. You can use it as a guide to help you decide which topics to read about. Additionally, there are notes on ideas that you ought to learn carefully.
Exam preparation without reference to the Dyeing and Bleaching syllabus is equivalent to visiting a farm without your farm equipment. You won’t be effective in the end.
Make sure to use the syllabus when you start your exam preparations.
The syllabus for dyeing and bleaching as well as the West African Examination Council’s suggested texts are included in this section (WAEC).
- 1 WAEC Dyeing and Bleaching
- 2 WAEC Dyeing and Bleaching Syllabus
- 3 List of Materials, Tools and Equipment
WAEC Dyeing and Bleaching
The purpose of this syllabus is to lay the groundwork for an impartial evaluation of candidates’ knowledge of the socioeconomic implications of dyeing and bleaching.
This will allow us to assess how well they are able to use dying and bleaching to generate income, maintain themselves, and end poverty.
Candidates will be evaluated based on:
- knowledge and practical skill in the functional and productive manipulation of dyes and chemicals on fabrics;
- creative ingenuity in visual representations;
- ability to produce finished designed fabric for appreciation and economic patronage;
- understanding of the safety measures in executing dyeing and bleaching.
Scheme of Examination
Papers 1, 2, and 3 are the three exams that must all be taken. Papers 1 and 2 will be combined into one paper that must be taken all at once.
40 multiple-choice questions spanning the whole curriculum will make up Paper 1.
Candidates will have 45 minutes to complete all of the questions for 40 points.
Exam 2: There will be six essay-style questions on this paper, and applicants must respond to any four of them for 60 marks in one hour and forty minutes.
Paper 3: Candidates’ proficiency in printing, batik, and tie-dying will be assessed. There are three options for the paper:
- Batik (Wax or Starch Resist)
Only the questions posed by the alternatives are to be answered by candidates.
The paper must be printed using printing inks and dye-resist ingredients on cloth.
Each option will receive 100 points.
The test will start once candidates have had 30 minutes to prepare, and it will last for four hours.
A visiting Examiner designated by the West African Examinations Council will administer the test and grade it there and then (WAEC).
Candidates will have access to the question paper at least two weeks before the test date.
Introduction to Tie Fye
- Meaning of tie-dye
- Types of tie-dye designs
- Materials and tools for tie-dye
Colour Manipulation and Motif Formation
- Definition of colour
- Classes of colours
- Formation of motifs for designs
- Using motifs to create impressions on the fabric
- Creation of patterns e.g repeat, mirror, half-drop, half slide, block etc.
Safety and Precautions
- Safety materials to be used when dyeing e.g. nose and mouth masks, rubber gloves, apron, cold water, petroleum jelly e.t.c.
- Proper storage of chemicals
- Proper handling of electrical appliances
- Importance of safety precautions
Preparation of Dye
- Meaning of dye
- Types of dyes e.g.(synthetic and natural dyes)-cold-water dye(reactive), warm / hot-water dye (Dylon) etc.
- Preparation of dye bath
- Dyeing procedures
- Plain dyeing
- Pattern dyeing e.g tieing techniques, marbling
- Finishing (oxidation, washing, starching, ironing and packaging)
Introduction to Batik
- Meaning of batik
- Types of batik e.g freehand, splashing, cracking, blocking, etc
- Materials and tools for batik e.g wax, fabric, tjanting, form, starch, yam, flour, dyes etc
- Wax resist method
- Preparation of fabric, wax and other materials
- Waxing techniques and precautions
- Oxidation and de-waxing
- Start resist method
- Meaning of starch
- Materials and tools for starch resist technique
- Preparation of paste
- Safety and precautions in starch resist method
- Different methods of starch resistance e.g. stencilling, freehand drawing, screening and stamping
- Oxidation and removal of starch
- Meaning of printing
- Printing techniques e.g relief process (lino), intaglio, silkscreen etc.
- Tools, materials and equipment for printing
- Motif formation
- The production process of fabric printing
Tie-Dye and Printing
- Introduction to tie-dye printing
- Techniques used to print on tie-dye e.g. direct printing, discharge printing, resist printing, transfer printing, etc.
- Materials and tools for tie-dye and printing
- Meaning of bleaching
- Types of bleaching e.g chlorine bleaching and oxygen bleaching
- Materials and tools for bleaching e.g fabric, chemicals( choloros, caustic soda, hydrosulphite etc).
- Application of bleach on fabric.
- Bee wax
- Boiling ring / Electric Kettle
- Bowls of different sizes
- Brown paper or old newspaper
- Brushes, sable and bristle
- Caustic soda, hydrosulphite, chlorine, chlorous, sodium chloride
- Cutting knives
- Cutting saw/ machine
- Drawing pins
- Drawing sheet
- Dye stuffs
- Fabric (assorted)
- Frame for stretching fabric and a medium sized screen printing frame
- Hand drier
- Pressing iron
- Lino sheets
- Lino cutters
- Long table for printing
- Masking tapes
- Metal pot
- Mixing cups
- Needle and thread
- Nylon(thick or carpet)
- Padded table
- Paddle stick and ladle
- Palette knife
- Plastic buckets
- Poster colour
- Rubber gloves
- Rubber rollers
- Spraying gun, automizer machine
- Template(different sizes)
- Texfast ink
- Wooden hanger
- Opaque ink
- Seriset and bichromate (blue emotion)
- Plain glass