Complete WAEC Syllabus for Dyeing and Bleaching 2023, Text Books, and Topics

You must read the WAEC syllabus for Dying and Bleaching in order to take the test. The goals and objectives, notes, and structure for the Dying and Bleaching exam are all included.

The Dying and Bleaching syllabus must be studied in order to be prepared for the exam. You can use it as a guide to help you decide which topics to read about. Additionally, there are notes on ideas that you ought to learn carefully.

Exam preparation without reference to the Dyeing and Bleaching syllabus is equivalent to visiting a farm without your farm equipment. You won’t be effective in the end.

Make sure to use the syllabus when you start your exam preparations.

The syllabus for dyeing and bleaching as well as the West African Examination Council’s suggested texts are included in this section (WAEC).

WAEC Dyeing and Bleaching

The purpose of this syllabus is to lay the groundwork for an impartial evaluation of candidates’ knowledge of the socioeconomic implications of dyeing and bleaching.

This will allow us to assess how well they are able to use dying and bleaching to generate income, maintain themselves, and end poverty.


Candidates will be evaluated based on:

  1. knowledge and practical skill in the functional and productive  manipulation of dyes and chemicals on fabrics;
  2. creative ingenuity in visual representations;
  3. ability to produce finished designed fabric for appreciation and economic patronage;
  4. understanding of the safety measures in executing dyeing and bleaching.

Scheme of Examination

Papers 1, 2, and 3 are the three exams that must all be taken. Papers 1 and 2 will be combined into one paper that must be taken all at once.

40 multiple-choice questions spanning the whole curriculum will make up Paper 1.

Candidates will have 45 minutes to complete all of the questions for 40 points.

Exam 2: There will be six essay-style questions on this paper, and applicants must respond to any four of them for 60 marks in one hour and forty minutes.

Paper 3: Candidates’ proficiency in printing, batik, and tie-dying will be assessed. There are three options for the paper:

  1. Batik (Wax or Starch Resist)
  2. Printing
  3. Tie-dye.

Only the questions posed by the alternatives are to be answered by candidates.
The paper must be printed using printing inks and dye-resist ingredients on cloth.

Each option will receive 100 points.

The test will start once candidates have had 30 minutes to prepare, and it will last for four hours.

A visiting Examiner designated by the West African Examinations Council will administer the test and grade it there and then (WAEC).

Candidates will have access to the question paper at least two weeks before the test date.

WAEC Dyeing and Bleaching Syllabus

Introduction to Tie Fye

  1. Meaning of tie-dye
  2. Types of tie-dye designs
  3. Materials and tools for tie-dye

Colour Manipulation and Motif Formation

  1. Definition of  colour
  2. Classes of colours
  3. Formation of motifs for designs
  4. Using motifs to create impressions on the fabric
  5. Creation of patterns e.g repeat, mirror, half-drop, half slide, block etc.

Safety and Precautions

  1. Safety materials to be used when dyeing e.g. nose and mouth masks, rubber gloves, apron, cold water, petroleum jelly e.t.c.
  2. Proper storage of chemicals
  3. Proper handling of electrical appliances
  4. Importance of safety precautions

Preparation of Dye

  1. Meaning of dye
  2. Types of dyes e.g.(synthetic and natural dyes)-cold-water dye(reactive), warm / hot-water dye (Dylon) etc.
  3. Preparation of dye bath

Dyeing Processes

  1. Dyeing procedures
  2. Plain dyeing
  3. Pattern dyeing e.g tieing techniques, marbling
  4. Finishing (oxidation, washing, starching, ironing and packaging)

Introduction to Batik

  1. Meaning of batik
  2. Types of batik e.g freehand, splashing, cracking, blocking, etc
  3. Materials and tools for batik e.g wax, fabric, tjanting, form, starch, yam, flour, dyes etc


  1. Wax resist method
    • Preparation of fabric, wax and other materials
    • Waxing techniques and precautions
    • Oxidation and de-waxing
    • Finishing.
  2. Start resist method
    • Meaning of starch
    • Materials and tools for starch resist technique
    • Preparation of paste
    • Safety and precautions in starch resist method
    • Different methods of starch resistance e.g. stencilling, freehand drawing, screening and stamping
    • Oxidation and removal of starch
    • Finishing

Fabric Printing

  1. Meaning of printing
  2. Printing techniques e.g relief process (lino), intaglio, silkscreen etc.
  3. Tools, materials and equipment for printing
  4. Motif formation
  5. The production process of fabric printing
  6. Finishing

Tie-Dye and Printing

  1. Introduction to tie-dye printing
    • Techniques used to print on tie-dye e.g. direct printing, discharge printing, resist printing, transfer printing, etc.
    • Materials and tools for tie-dye and printing
    • Finishing
  2. Meaning of bleaching
    • Types of bleaching e.g chlorine bleaching and oxygen bleaching
    • Materials and tools for bleaching e.g fabric, chemicals( choloros, caustic soda, hydrosulphite etc).
    • Application of bleach on fabric.

List of Materials, Tools and Equipment

  1. Alum
  2. Bee wax
  3. Boiling ring / Electric Kettle
  4. Bowls of different sizes
  5. Brown paper or old newspaper
  6. Brushes, sable and bristle
  7. Cardboard
  8. Caustic soda, hydrosulphite, chlorine, chlorous, sodium chloride
  9. Chisel
  10. Cutting knives
  11. Cutting saw/ machine
  12. Drawing pins
  13. Drawing sheet
  14. Dye stuffs
  15. Eraser
  16. Fabric (assorted)
  17. Foam
  18. Frame for stretching fabric and a medium sized screen printing frame
  19. Generator
  20. Hand drier
  21. Pressing iron
  22. Lino  sheets
  23. Lino cutters
  24. Long table for printing
  25. Masking tapes
  26. Metal pot
  27. Plastic
  28. Mixing cups
  29. Needle and thread
  30. Nylon(thick or carpet)
  31. Padded table
  32. Paddle stick and ladle
  33. Palette knife
  34. Pegs
  35. Pencil
  36. Plastic buckets
  37. Poster colour
  38. Raffia/twine
  39. Rubber gloves
  40. Rubber rollers
  41. Rulers
  42. Spoons
  43. Spraying gun, automizer machine
  44. Squeegee
  45. Stapler
  46. Stove
  47. Tjanting
  48. Template(different sizes)
  49. Texfast ink
  50. Wax
  51. Wooden hanger
  52. Thimbles
  53. Opaque ink
  54. Mesh
  55. Seriset and bichromate (blue emotion)
  56. Lacquer
  57. Plain glass
  58. Starch

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