You must read up on the WAEC Metal Work course in order to take the test. The Metal Work exam’s goals and objectives, notes, and format are all included.
You must study Metal Work in order to be prepared for the exam. You can use it as a guide to help you decide which topics to read about. Additionally, there are notes on ideas that you ought to learn carefully.
Exam preparation without the use of Metal Work is equivalent to going to the farm without your farming equipment. You won’t be effective in the end.
Make sure to use the syllabus when you start your exam preparations.
The West African Examination Council’s Metal Work and suggested texts are included in this section (WAEC).
WAEC Metal Work
The purpose of the exam is to gauge a candidate’s aptitude for entrepreneurship, practical work, and fundamental design.
Along with their grasp of those areas of creative thinking that can be expressed and developed through planning and working primarily with metals as part of general education, it will also evaluate their knowledge of tools, equipment, and materials.
The test will also determine whether an applicant is competent enough to pursue further study in science and technology.
The purpose of the syllabus is to evaluate whether applicants have acquired the necessary knowledge and abilities to continue their education and personal development in the fields of science and technology.
Candidates are anticipated to
- observe safe working practices in the workshop;
- demonstrate knowledge and understanding of tools, materials and equipment;
- apply basic processes for the care and maintenance of hand and machine tools;
- have the ability in identifying, analysing and evaluating a problem;
- apply their knowledge of processes and materials to the solution of problems;
- demonstrate basic skills of good craftsmanship;
- apply knowledge of career opportunities in metalwork;
- have the ability to translate an idea into a project design.
SCHEME OF EXAMINATION
There will be three exams in the exam—Papers 1, 2, and 3—and each one must be taken. Papers 1 and 2 will be combined exams that must be taken all at once.
forty mandatory multiple-choice objective questions will make up Paper 1. The candidates will have one hour to respond to the questions. There will be 40 marks in the exam.
Paper 2: Candidates will have two hours and fifteen minutes to answer four of the five questions in this paper. There will be 60 marks on the paper. Equal marks will be awarded for each question.
Paper 3: This practical test will last three hours. Prior to the examination starting, you will have 10 minutes to analyze the drawings.
There will be two questions on the paper, and candidates must choose one to respond to.
They’ll have to build a test component, for which the necessary blueprints will be provided. The test will be worth 100 points. Materials required for the practical test will need to be provided by schools.
|1. General safety in the workshop.|| 1.1 Potential sources of accidents. Measures to avoid accidents.
1.2 Personal safety. Safety clothing: goggles apron, gloves, boots with hard toe caps, helmet.
1.3 Safety rules and precautions in a metal workshop.
|2. Metals.|| 2.1 Description of metals: physical and mechanical properties.
2.2 Types of Metals:-Ferrous metals: pig iron, wrought iron, cast iron and steels.
Non-Ferrous Metals: aluminium, zinc, copper, tin and lead.Non-ferrous alloys: brass, bronze, solders and duralumin.Constituents and properties.
2.3 Uses of Metals: Construction of auto bodies, frames, and structural members of buildings and bridges.Selection of suitable metals for specific jobs.
2.4 Production of Metals
– Types of metals and their ores: copper-pyrite, aluminium–bauxite, iron – hematite, zinc–calamine, lead – gelina, tin–tin ore (cassiterite).
– Methods of extraction: open pit and underground.
-Processes of smelting and refining: Blast furnace, Bessemer converter, open hearth, crucible, cupola electric arc and high frequency induction furnace and reverberating furnace.
– Forms of metal supply: billets, blooms and slabs.
– file test.
– spark test.
|3. Hand Tools and Bench Work.||3.1 Hand tools.
– Hand tools: care and maintenance.
Measuring tools: linear and angular.
Steel rule, angle plate and scriber, etc.Bench vice, hand vice, G-clamp, chuck, etc.Cold chisels, hacksaw, files, taps and dies.
Engineers’ hammers, mallets.
Screwdrivers, spanners, drifts, etc.
3.2 BenchworkFiling, chiselling, threading and sawing.
3.3 Care and maintenance of tools
Need for maintenance.
|3.1.1 Practical exercises involving the use of handTools.
3.3.1 Practical exercises involving care and Maintenance
– oiling, cleaning, greasing of hand tools.
|4. Heat treatment of metals.||4.1 Importance of heat treatment of metals.
4.2 Heat Treatment processes. – Annealing
– Case hardening
4.3 Materials and Equipment for heat treatment of metals.
– Materials used as cooling media for heat treatment of metals: coal, brine, water, air, oil and ash.Equipment: furnaces, pyrometer, oven quenching tanks, blacksmith forge, oxy-acetylene flame.
4.4 Tempering colours and temperature ranges.
4.5 Safety precautions.
|4.2.1 Heat treatment of hand tools.
4.4.1 Use of colour charts.
|5. Hand forging.|| 5.1 Principles of forging
– Definition of forging
– Importance of forging
– Types of forging: cold, hot and drop forging.
5.2 Forging tools and Equipment.
– anvil, hammer, top and bottom swages, hardies, fullers, tongs and heart forge.
5.3 Forging operations
– fullering, upsetting, bending, drawing down, punching, flattening, cutting, twisting and swaging.
5.4 Safety precautions.
|5.3.1 Forging of chisels, centre punch, scriber, door bolts, hinges, hoes, pokers, etc.|
|6. Foundry Work.||6.1 Principles of Casting:
– Definition and importance of casting.
– Method of casting: sand casting.
6.2 Materials and equipment for sand casting.
6.3 Processes: pattern making (single piece, split and flat back), moulding, melting and pouring, dismantling and fettling.
6.4 Core making (box, sand).
6.5 Casting defects (types and causes)
6.6 Safety precautions.
|6.3.1 Mould making and metal pouring.
6.3.2 Simple pattern making.
|7. Metal Joining|| 7.1 Types: temporary and permanent.
Temporary metal joining processes.
Explanation, identification and uses of common fasteners: Bolts, Nuts, Pins and Screws.
7.2 Soft Soldering Tools and equipment.
Types of joints and processes.
7.3 Hard soldering
Tools and equipment.
Types of joints and processes. Procedure for making hard soldered joints.
7.4 Gas and Electric Arc Welding.
Welding equipment, welding operation, welding flames.
Welding techniques and safety.
7.5 RivetingTools and equipment, types of rivets and joints.
7.6 Safety precautions.
|7.2.1 Design and make an artefact involving soft soldering.|
|8. Sheet Metalwork.||8.1 Selection of materials,
– Low carbon sheet, galvanised sheet, tin plate, copper, aluminium and brass sheet.
– Standard gauges.
8.2 Tools and Equipment:
– Stakes, Hammers, Mallets, Snips, Hand lever, Shears, Folding bar, Sand bag and Slip roll.
8.3 Pattern development and cutting .
– Methods of Pattern development: types, layout, and cutting out of patterns.
8.4 Basic Fabrication processes: Bending, Raising, Hallowing, Sinking, Expanding and Contracting.
8.5 Joints and joining
Types of joints: lap, grooves, seams.
Methods of joining: Self–tapping screw.
8.6 Safety precautions.
|8.4.1 Production of simple articles e.g. cans, funnels and bowls.|
|9. Machine Tools and processes.||9.1 Drilling, Drilling machines and reaming
Description, types of tools and setting up.
Types of drilling machines: sensitive, pillar and radial.Drilling faults & remedies
9.2 Grinding, Description of grinding operations. Types of grinding wheels and setting up of grinding operation.
9.3 Power sawing: Description, types of tools and machines.
Setting up of machine for power sawing.
9.4 Lathe and lathe turning operations.
Parts and functions of the centre lathe: the bed, headstock, tailstock, carriage feed and thread cutting mechanism.
– Operations on the centre lathe: parting off, knurling and taper – turning. – Work holding devices: 3 and 4 – jaw chucks, collets, face plates, catch plates and mandrels. other accessories steadies and entres.
9.5 Shaping Machines
– Types of shapers: swivel, tilting and universal table
– Parts of a shaping machine and their functions Pedestal, ram, saddle, table and driving mechanism.
– Cutting tools materials and holders.
9.6 Cutting lubricants and coolants (soluble oil, straight cutting oil, soda solution).
9.7 Care, maintenance and safety precautions.
|9.1.1 Exercises on drilling machine: drilling, reaming, countersinking and counterboring.
9.2.1 Grinding of single-point tools, e.g. scribers, chisels and lathe tool bits.
9.3.1 Using the power saws to cut materials for projects.
9.4.1 Operation sequence, exercises involving step turning, drilling, boring, taper turning, knurling, vee thread-cutting and parting off.
|10. Finishes and decorative processes.|| 10.1 Types of finishes and decorative processes
– polishing and buffing, spot facing, planishing, colouring, plating, etching, lacquering, pickling and enamelling
|10.1.1 Application of finishes on projects.|
|11. Design.||11.1 Identifying the ProblemProblem areas: market, classroom, lorry park,workshop.Problem definition:benefits to be derived from finding solution(s) to the problem identified.
11.2 Generating possible solutions investigation procedures and possible solutions: interviews, observation, visits, reading journals, books, photographs, and sketches of solution alternatives.
Generation of possible solution.
Selecting the best solution by: simplicity/ complexity, availability of materials and cost.
Freehand sketching, working drawings, prototype, testing and production.
|11.2.1 Produce a folio and realise the artifact.|
List of Materials and Equipment for Metal Work Workshop
Recommended workshop size:
Purpose-bulk 14m length x 8m width x 4m height, well ventilated and illuminated.
Safety Equipment and Materials;
Fire extinguishers, first aid box, buckets of sand, CO2 wall charts etc.
1. Workshop Tools
(a) Cutting tools: Hacksaw, drills, chisels, snips, files, stock and die, scrappers, reamers, turning tools, milling machine, shaping tools.
(b) Measuring tools: Steel rules, inside and outside callipers, combination square, micrometer screw gauges, vernier gauges, vernier protractors, spirit level, dial gauges.
(c) Marking out tools: Surface gauge, surface plate, try square, vee-block, dividers, odd leg callipers, trammels, straight edge, scriber, angle plates, centre punches.
(d) Driving tools; pin punches, screwdrivers, hammers, drifts.
(e) Work holding devices: clamps, vices, pliers, mole grips, self-gripping wrenches.
(f) Forging tools: hardies, fullers, tongs, swages, anvils, anvil stands, letter stamps and stakes, sandbag.
2. Workshop Equipment
Workbenches, marking out table, blacksmith’s hearth, foundry furnace, sets of toolboxes, oil cans, computer hardware and software.
3. Machine Tools
Centre lathe(with accessories), sensitive and pillar drilling machines, pedestal grinder, power hacksaw, folding machine, shears, rolling machine, milling, shaping machine, etc
Standard arc welding machine accessories, electrodes, shields, aprons, chipping hammers, welding boots, standard oxygen and acetylene cylinders, filler rods, spark lighters, regulators, nozzles, etc.
Mild steel round bars (03mm – 050mm), Flat bars (of different sizes), Square bars, Hexagonal bars, Mild steel sheets and plates, Galvanized and tinned sheets. Projects may be constructed with non-ferrous metals e.g. Copper, Aluminium and Brass.
WAEC Recommended Textbooks for Metal Work
- Workshop Technology (parts 1 and 2) – W.A.T. Chapman
- Metalwork Technology – G. H. Thomas
- Metal Technology – C. E. S. A. C.
- Introductory Technology – C. E. S. A. C.
- Welding Technology – Gourd
- Mechanical Engineering practice – A. Green and W.H. Howe
- Crafts Theory and Related Studies – R.T. Pritchard Vol. 1 & 2
- Mechanical Engineering – R.I. Timings
- Metalwork Theory, Books 1, 2, 3, & 4 (Metric Edition) – P.F. Lye – Harrap, Lon
- Design Technology in Metal and Plastics (Metric Edition) – G.H. Thomas-John Murray
- Jab Metalwork Projects for African Schools and Colleges – R. Edward – Cassel Lon
- Basic Engineering Processes – S. Crawford
- Metalwork – R. Sandham & F.R. Wilmers
- Workshop Processes and Materials – J. V. Courtney
- Metalwork Projects and Theory (S.I. Units) – K. Parkinson
- The Theory and Practice of Metalwork (3rd Edition) – G. Love
- Metalwork for Schools and Colleges – J. N. Green
- Metal Cutting Machine tools – Adejuyigbe, S. B.
- 19. Metalwork Technology – J.K.N. Sackey S. K. Amoakohene.