Complete WAEC Syllabus for Social Studies 2023, Text Books, and Topics

You must study the WAEC Social Studies syllabus in order to take the test. The purpose and goals, notes, and format for the Social Studies test are all included.

You must study Social Studies in order to be prepared for your exam. You can use it as a guide to help you decide which topics to read about. Additionally, there are notes on ideas that you ought to learn carefully.

Exam preparation without the use of social studies is equivalent to going to the farm without your farm equipment. You won’t be effective in the end.

Make sure to use the syllabus when you start your exam preparations.

The West African Examination Council’s Social Studies and suggested textbooks are listed in this article (WAEC).

WAEC Social Studies


Social studies is the study of current social issues. By providing knowledge about the culture or ways of life of their society, as well as its issues, values, and ambitions for the future, the topic prepares the individual to enter society.

The topic is multi-disciplinary and draws inspiration from a variety of fields, including economics, geography, history, sociology, psychology, and civic education. These fields’ core concepts and knowledge are incorporated into a subject that can stand on its own.

Social studies is a discipline that enables students in developing the critical and simultaneously developmental mindset necessary to reform societies by assisting them in better understanding their society and investigating how it operates. Our society has developed slowly. The course is intended to help students better comprehend the social, cultural, environmental, political, and economic concerns that face Ghanaian society. They will be able to do so in order to critically and constructively assess the institutions and practices of the society. The nation will undoubtedly be on the road to faster and better growth and development as a result of this.


The examination syllabus is aimed at testing candidates’

  • understanding of the components of positive attitudes and values towards individual and societal issues
  • knowledge of the components of society and their role
  • understanding of the democratic values and  how they foster national unity
  • understanding of the importance of the institution of marriage and family and their importance to society
  • understanding of positive self-concept for the development of the individual, good inter-personal relationships and social harmony
  • awareness of socializing agencies and their roles in forging national unity
  • understanding of physical and social environment and the need to preserve them
  • awareness of socio-economic problems in Ghana and how to solve them for sustainable development
  • ability to cope with the problems of social change.


Papers 1 and 2 will be the two exams, and both must be taken.

50 multiple-choice objective questions will be included in PAPER 1, all of which must be answered truthfully.

answered in 50 minutes or less for 50 points.

Paper 2 will be divided into three sections, A, B, and C, and will cover the areas of the


Section A: The Environment
Section B: Stability, Politics, and Governance
Social and economic development is covered in Section C.
There will be four questions in Section A. Sections B and C must include three.

each question. Candidates must respond to a total of five questions.

choose at least one question from each category, but no more than two


The exam will take three hours and each question will be worth 20 points.

WAEC Social Studies Syllabus

Section A: The Environment

  1. Self-Identify

1.1 Explanation of self’ and capabilities

1.2   False identity and its implications

1.3   Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Theory – its Usefulness to the individual

1.4 Developing one’s capabilities

1.5 Self-confidence:  its meaning and development

2.0 Adolescent Reproductive Health

2.1 Explanation of terms adolescent, reproductive health and reproductive right 2.2 Characteristics of adolescence

2.3 Irresponsible adolescent behaviour and its implications

2.4 Safety measures for adolescent health

2.5 Fostering good gender relations

2.6 Chastity:  meaning and benefits.

3.0 Our Culture and National Identity

3.1 Explain the concept national identity.

3.2 Identification of socio-cultural practices in Ghana

3.3 Explain how Socio-cultural practices in Ghana promote or inhibit development and why some should be changed

3.4 The need for institutionalizing some socio-cultural practices

3.5 Evaluate the importance of national and traditional symbols in fostering national allegiance.

3.6 Identify those elements of Ghanaian culture that bind us together

3.7  Identify some Ghanaian values and traits

4.0 The Institution of Marriage

4.1 Explanation of courtship and marriage

4.2 Purpose of marriage

4.3 Preparation towards marriage

4.4 Types of marriage in Ghana – process and residence

4.5 Challenges in marriage

4.6 Causes and effects of broken in marriages

4.7 Ways for sustaining marriages.

5.0 Individual obligations in the family

5.1 Explanation of family and types

5.2 Functions and importance of the nuclear and extended families

5.3 The roles of individual members of the family

5.4 Systems of inheritance

5.5 Importance of family as an institution

5.6 Implications of abandoning the family

6.0 Responsible Parenting

6.1 Differences between parenthood and parenting

6.2 Responsibilities of parents

6.3 Consequences of irresponsible parenting

6.4 Preventing and managing parent- child conflict

6.5 Ways by which children cause their parents to be irresponsible.

7.0 Socialization and Our Social Environment

7.1 Explanation of socializationagencies of socialization and agents of socialization

7.2 The roles of agents and agencies of socialization

7.3 Deviant behaviour and its implications on the society

7.4 Challenges agent/agencies face in the socialization process

7.5 Factors that promote better interpersonal relationship in groups and individuals in Ghana

8.0Our Physical Environment and Environmental challenges

8.1 Explanation of the terms physical environment and environmental Challenge

8.2 How human activities in Ghana are influenced by the physical environment

8.3 The impact of human activities on the physical environment- positive and negative and their effects on man

8.4 Measures for protecting the environment

  • Education and Social Change

9.1 Explanation of education, its forms and purposes.

9.2 Explanation of social change.


9.3 The impact of education on national development.

9.4 The role of education in social change in Ghana.


10.0 National Independence and Self Reliance

10.1 Explanation of political independence and self-reliance


10.2 Challenges/responsibilities of political independence

10.3 Reasons why Ghanaians misconstrued implications of independence.

10.4 How to overcome the challenges of political independence in Ghana

10.5 How to apply the concept of independence and self-reliance to one’s life.

  1. Peace Building and Conflict Resolution

11.1 Explanation of the concepts peace building and conflict resolution

11.2 Source of conflicts and their effects

11.3 Identify the effects of conflict on the society

11.4 Conditions for peace building

11.5 Processes of peace building

  1. Leadership and Followership

12.1 Meaning of leadership and followership

12.2 Qualities of a leader and a follower

12.3 Kind of leaders

12.4 Leadership styles

12.5 The role of a leader and follower in nation building

13.0 Our Constitution, Democracy and Nation Building

13.1 Explanation of constitution, democracy and nation building

13.1 Features of democracy

13.3 Importance of constitution in nation building

13.4 The role of democracy in nation building

13.5 Reasons why unity and development are more sustainable under democratic government

13.6 How to prevent autocratic rule

14.0 Rights and Responsibilities of the Individual

14.1 Explanation of rights and responsibilities

14.2 Types of rights and responsibilities

14.3 Possible conflicts in the exercise of rights and responsibilities

14.4 Reasons for curtailment of rights

14.5 The need for citizens to perform their responsibilities

15.0 Ghana and the International Community

15.1 Explanation of globalization and international community

15.2 Forms of co-operation Ghana has with other nations and bodies

– UNO, AU, ECOWAS, Commonwealth

15.3 Origin and objectives of New Partnership or Africa’s Development (NEPAD)

15.4 Benefits of NEPAD to Ghana


16.0 The Youth and National Development

16.1 Meaning of youth

16.2 Challenges facing the youth in their efforts to contribute to national development

16.3 Avenues for youth training in Ghana

16.4 Avenues by which the youth can get employment

16.5 Benefits of financial security to the individual and the nation

16.6 Planning sustainable financial security for the future

16.7 Explanation of the work of some financial institutions in the country

16.8 The role of the youth in national development

17.0 Science and Technology

17.1 Differences between science and technology

17.2 The role of science and technology in national development

17.3 Measures for promoting science and technology in Ghana

17.4 How science and technology is used in the development and production in the world.

17.5 Ways by which Ghana could promote development through increase application of science and technology

18.0 Resource development and Utilization in Ghana

18.1 Explanation of Resource, Development and Utilization

18.2 Types of resources and the relationship among them in production

  1. Measures for developing human resources

18.4 How human resources and other resources contribute to national development

19.0 The role of the Individual in Community Development

19.1 Explanation of community and community development

19.2 Identification of levels of community

19.3 Factors involved in community decision making

19.4 The need for visioninitiative and drive in community development

19.5 Explain what community development involves

19.6 Ways by which individuals can contribute to community development

20.0 Promoting National SocioEconomic Development

20.1 Explanation of the concept Development

20.2 Identification of components of nation socio-economic life

20.3 Characteristics of a buoyant economy

20.4 Sources of development problems in Ghana

20.5 Measures Ghana has taken to improve development and standard of living in the country.

20.6   Ways of improving the standard of living in Ghana

  • Sustainable Development

21.1 Explanation of sustainable development and maintenance culture

21.2 Factors hindering sustainability of growth and development in Ghana

21.3 Measures to sustain growth and development

21.4 Measures to improve quality human resources and prevent their loss

21.5 Ways of ensuring sustainability in a person’s life

21.6 Explain how to avoid incurring unmanageable debts

21.7 How to avoid falling victim to financial fraudsters

22.0 Population growth and Development

22.1 The structure of Ghana’s population and social and economic implication

22.2 Social and Economic implication of Ghana’s population structure

22.3 Measures for breaking the vicious cycle of Ghana’s rapid population growth

22.4 Efforts made towards implementation of Ghana’s 1994 population policy

22.5 Why it is difficult for Ghana to achieve the 4th and 5th millennium development goals

22.6 Give reasons for a person’s preference for an ideal family size.

  • The World of Work and Entrepreneurship

23.1 Explanation of work, productivity and entrepreneurship

23.2 Types of enterprises in Ghana

23.3 Qualities of an entrepreneur

23.4 Basic requirements for starting a business enterprise and sustaining it

23.5 Contribution of local enterprises to economic development

23.6 Negative attitudes to work and their effect on productivity

23.7 Positive work attitudes that employers expect of workers


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